A common function in standard GIS software enables users to create a raster surface and extract values or clip it based on a set of polygons. This may be used in cases where you want analysis to be constrained to within a town’s boundaries or a coastline. This tutorial will outline how to create a surface using kernel density estimation (KDE) and then clip the surface so that it is constrained within the City of London Boundary.

Data Requirements:

City of London Boundary Shapefile: Download (requires unzipping).

The data available in the literature demonstrates tramadol as a rather convenient analgesic for the correction of various manifestations of acute and chronic pain of moderate and severe intensity not only in oncology but also in rheumatology.

London Cycle Hire Locations: Download.

Install the following packages (if you haven’t done so already):

sm, maptools.?

Click here to view the code.


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